DMITRY FEDOROV

 

 

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PAINTUNG AND GRAPHIC ART ANG COIN DESIGN

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PAINTING

There is an eternal problem faced by anyone who wants and will try to capture their sense of Beauty with the help of paints. It's about making your canvas worth living for centuries. After all, people live in continuously changing cultural trends. True creativity requires the assimilation of the humanitarian traditions of the past, in which art, as a special symbolic reality, is placed in an anthropogenic space other than natural. Thanks to his skill, the artist through the creation and subtle combination of color-forms, handling the line and the plane and the use of all the emotional and spiritual features of color can realize any ideas and conceptions. But it is the creation of an ideal world of art has always been the task of any creative process.

I'm an artist by mission. I improve my skills every day and try to make every job better than the previous one. I draw without intention to influence other artists with some "innovations". On the contrary, I am a conservative and I believe that there is nothing new in art for a long time. I agree with Renoir, who said:"I did not come up with anything new, it's just a continuation of the art of the 13th century." I take with all my heart and soul the most close to me covenants of the masters of the past. Talent, hard work, imagination and close communication with the cultural tradition help me to create emotionally charged works. With my creativity I try to return the status of a real Artist to the painter, which some modern trends in the world of art and critics do not want or are afraid to recognize, reducing the role of creativity to an intellectual game, juggling ideas and meanings, to the detriment of sensual and emotional perception of Beauty. In my work, I try to influence the most subtle and intimate strings of the viewer's soul, which allows him to feel involved in the sphere of a new artistic reality. This is a painting in which "use colors, but paint feelings " (Jean B. Chardin).

YES:

ACRYLIC PAINTING ON HARDBOARD ON THE CLASSIC STORIES WITH THE USE OF GILDING AND SILVERING

NO:

PORTRAITS AND LANDSCAPES

Фортуна - императрица мира на золотом троне

Why acrylic, not oil, why hardboard, not canvas?

Each picture consists of three completely different elements.
1. The base or material on which the painting is painted, i.e. board, canvas, stone, paper, etc.
2. The priming coat that covers this base.
3. Painting, forming a series of successive layers of paint laid on the priming coat.

If the painting is executed in bad conditions and itself contains a source of future destruction, then, of course, the picture will not save neither any good base nor solid priming coat, and, conversely, quite enough the poor quality of these two factors to spoil the strongest painting. Naturally, the basis for the picture should be chosen the best.

A SMALL HISTORY EXCURSION

tHE BASE AND THE PRIMING COAT. In the old days, they paint on wood, tanned leather, marble, slate, wall lime plaster, and even just on the stone, saturating it with resin, which was first heated to give it the opportunity to penetrate deeper into the base. The boards used for painting were very thick and strong. Historians write that during the siege of Rhodes soldiers used pictures of Apelles instead of dining tables. In the middle ages they painted mainly on oak and poplar boards, gluing them together with animal glue, with which thepriming coat was made, or flour paste mixed with gypsum or chalk. The glue from curd and lime (casein glue) which recipe can be found in ancient manuscripts was also used. Casein glue is very strong, it is noticed that on absolutely rotten old boards the priming coat remained intact and that even in the places of the joints strengthened by the canvas tapes impregnated with casein glue, the tree also blocked by this glue, well remained.

The preparation of boards for painting was considered so serious that, for example, the government of the Netherlands found it necessary to monopolize it and took this care: the best carpenters were engaged in the manufacture of boards from immaculate and dry wood. It was even forbidden, under the threat of a fine, to paint to anyone on boards made not in government workshops. Here are the motives of the legislator, explaining this measure: "the Genius of the artist belongs to his Fatherland. The duty of the Fatherland to take care as much as possible about the extension of the century of the best works. To achieve this, you need to take care of all the pictures equally, because every famous artist begins with the unknown, or unknown yet in its modesty, but because the artist, not knowing how to evaluate his picture in the future, should not, by negligence or economy, to put his picture at risk. This was the law that bring a smile in our time — and this law was strictly enforced in the heyday of the school of Dutch painting. Perhaps we owe him the safety of those wonderful examples of painting that we enjoy in our museums. The use of wooden boards remained in Italy - to Raphael, and in the Netherlands much longer — to Rubens. The time when the first paintings were painted on a free stretched canvas, not exactly established, but it is likely that it was used in the XV century primarily to reduce the cost of making paintings, as good boards were very expensive. Original paintings on canvas are executed for decorating secondary rooms, bedrooms, the far chambers of the palaces of the aristocracy. In the main halls, as well as in churches, only paintings on boards were used. The widespread use of canvas as a basis for painting in Europe refers only to the XVII century due to the increase in the number of customers among the bourgeoisie and merchants who wanted to decorate their homes no worse than the aristocracy, but for less money. Since good painting on primed canvas from afar does not differ from painting on a board, but is cheaper, the artists massively moved to a new basis - canvas.

Unfortunately, the canvas has a number of significant drawbacks. The most important of which is that the canvas varies greatly in volume depending on the air temperature. If the air is warm and dry - it is stretched like a drum, if the air is cold and wet - it sags like a rag. As a result, there are strong stresses in the priming coat and the paint layer, and as a result - cracks, craquelure and detachment of the paint layer. Huge harm for the paintings subframes that do not have sliding angles, bevels, rails and frogs, subframes with composite straps, plywood "triangles" at the corners. The consequences of storing paintings on such stretchers are obvious: the deformation of the canvas, the breakage of the soil and the paint layer. Low quality of primed canvases in rolls has become a mass phenomenon nowadays. The primed canvas is initially stretched with a wave-like bending of the threads, not to mention thickening, numerous knots of the threads that require special elimination, and this violates the adhesive layer and the strength of the canvas itself, which leads to uneven tension of the base and the priming coat. It is in stressed areas on the ground cracks occur earlier than in the rest of the plane. Thus, the priming coat allows you to freely pass the paint on the reverse side of the canvas or, conversely, is almost impervious to paint. This surface does not give adhesion of the primed canvas to the paint layer. I'm not talking about the fragility of the canvas, a little pressure or impact - and you have a concavity or a gap that costs a lot of time and money to repair.

As for the cardboard, the quality of most of the primed paperboard are unsatisfactory. Initially for their priming use low-grade cardboard, which are warped in all directions. The priming coat absorb the binder from the paints, like a sponge, the paint layer becomes matte, and the binder passes to the back of the cardboard, leaving stains.

PAINT. Tempera is known to be earlier than oil paint. Already ancient Greek painters used it in the classical era. In the middle ages it is the most common technique for painting. In Europe, tempera was used until the XV century. In Russia we still use the tempera for icon paintings. Since the end of the XV century, the popularity of oil painting (which came to Italy from the North )is growing, and in the XVI century it finally displace tempera. Vasari calls the inventor of oil painting Dutch painter Jan van Eyck - master of the first half of the XV century. Characteristically, that the Italian painters throughout the XV century, regardless of van Eyck experimenting with oils and varnishes, but the real development of oil painting gets in Italy only at the end of the XV century, when Antonello da Messina brings to Venice recipes of the Dutch painter. However, in that era oils were called all thick liquids extracted in a cold way from plants, not excluding essential oils (essences). So, the only thing that could be learned from the whole process of painting van Eyck, it's just... the term "oil" ! A complete turning point occurs in the North Italian painting in the work of Giovanni Bellini, who uses Antonello's lessons and in combination of oil paints with tempera finds an incentive for his deep, hot, saturated color. And in the next generation of Venetian painters, in the workshops of Giorgione and Titian, there is a final liberation of oil painting from all traditions of tempera and frescoes. At the same time, oil paints have a number of technical advantages, allowing you to quickly achieve the desired effect, which is very difficult to achieve with tempera. They allow you to easily create smooth transitions of tones and lighting effects and have a nice shine.

At the same time, defects in oil paints are more related to the distant future, and not to the present: over time, oil paints lose elasticity, the strength of binders, darken, yellow, covered with cracks (craquelure), as the oil hardens and decreases in volume. We can say that craquelure appear the sooner the thicker the layer of paint, as different layers dry at different speeds. It is enough to walk through the Louvre to make sure that the safety of the paintings is directly dependent on the materials used. In the Louvre with sufficient clarity can be compared to the durability of modern painting and more distant times painting. For example, in the paintings of the XV century, the colouring is brighter and the colors are better preserved than in the works of the XVII century. With the approach of the twentieth century painting deteriorates more and more. Who is to blame for this? Only artists whose indifference to the conscious choice of means of their art goes beyond all limits.

At present, artists have little interest in the materials of their art. They gave the whole care of preparing canvases and paints to people who often have nothing to do with painting. These clever, but at the same time ignorant Industrialists invent varnishes, solvents, driers with tricky names, put on sale very dangerous products for painting. They supply everything: a box for paints, an easel, brushes, pseudo-technologies and even subjects of pictures. It becomes very difficult to distinguish bad material from good, and often artists, fearing deception, fall into another extreme, refusing to use new, but completely safe for painting colors.
The modern artist, equipped with all this, as an Amateur, not knowing the materials for painting, is given to his fantasies in the glory of "eternal art" and paint any which way,, not thinking about the future, concerned with one thought - not to fall behind the fashion and not to fall out of the "trend", to make their "products" more expensive. Not following the trends is impossible — the press will not pay attention, gallerists twisting there noses, wealthy collectors will not buy, will not give grant etc. On the strength and quality of the product is nothing to worry about, let it takes care of the future owner. After all, this is his problem. The famous shark in the formalin of Damien Hirst rotten - it's not a Hirst problem , he got his millions. But what scope for the imagination of conceptualist! You can create anything and any materials, without thinking about the consequences!

ACRYL AND HARDBOARD

The twentieth century provided artists with a lot of new materials to avoid the most significant drawbacks of canvas and oil, and at the same time inexpensive. These are various solid materials used in construction, some of which can be used as a basis for painting and synthetic paints based on natural pigments, but with a synthetic binder, devoid of oil deficiencies. This, for example, hardboard (masonite, orgalite) and acrylic. Acrylic paint is a synthetic paint based on acrylic acid. Acrylic paints are characterized by high luminosity, water and heat resistance, dense adhesion to the surface. Acrylic paint consists of three main components: pigment, binder and water. The binder is a synthetic material called acrylic polymer emulsion.

Acrylic paints are universal and easy to handle and have many advantages. The popularity of acrylic has been steadily growing since its appearance on the market about 70 years ago. This was mainly due to a number of its major advantages over traditional materials. Acrylic paint dries quickly, have a good hiding power and excellent color brightness — they do not fade in the sun (like watercolor) and do not fade with time (like oil), after drying take the form of an elastic plastic coating. Drying of acrylic paints occurs as a result of evaporation of water, while the paint forms a chemically stable elastic film consisting of a pigment and a binder. Unlike oil paints, dried acrylic is characterized by greater strength (less brittle), the paint does not crumble, its layer does not form cracks, the surface does not peel off. Over time, acrylic paint does not wrinkle, it is not susceptible to normal temperature changes and changes in humidity conditions. Paints have existed for over 70 years, so their light resistance is quite obvious. Acrylic dries quickly. Denser layers dry more slowly - within a few minutes. Dried acrylic paint can not be removed with water, it is barely amenable to scraping or sandpaper.

In addition to fast drying and water resistance, acrylic has good adhesion. This quality allows you to successfully use it in outdoor painting, paints are not affected by weather conditions and fit well on most surfaces. Acrylic paints are perfect for collage, as they can be used as glue for paper or fabric. Textured acrylic pastes and modeling agents have strong adhesive properties and can be used to create relief surfaces.

But these advantages of acrylic paints are fully manifested only on a hard basis. If you paint with acrylic on canvas, we get the same problems as when painting with oil. That is why I chose a harf base for painting - hardboard. Fixed in the frame, well-primed, it does not change the volume in the weather conditions, the paint does not crack on it, it does not form dents and holes, it is very easy to transport, no special packaging is needed. Its only drawback - weight. But it's a small fee for all the benefits.


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